The way that we watch, videos has changed over the years. The advancement of technology has been leading us to the discovery of new technologies. Most recently we have gone from the use of DVD’s to video-on-demand. When we look at how technology changes, we must reference the six fundamental principles of the evolutionary technology. According to Thornburg (2014), the six forces that drive emerging technologies are Evolutionary Technologies, Rhyme of History, Science Fiction, Disruptive Technologies, Increasing Returns and Red Queen (Thornburg, 2014j). When looking at the trend of moving from DVD’s to video on demand and the competition between the two, we must examine two of the six principles. We must look at Increasing returns and red queens.

To explain these two principles, we must define them. Increasing returns is when, “Between two competing technologies, one technology is chosen, and the other disappears” (Thornburg, 2014j). Another way that this can be defined was when Arthur stated that increasing returns are, “the tendency for that which is ahead to get further ahead, for that which loses advantage to lose further advantage” (Arthur, 1996, p. 100). When we look at a Red Queen, it is when, “two technologies suddenly move ahead of a bunch of competitors because of their fierce completion” (Thornburg, 2014j).

Both of these are compelling arguments for the ways DVD’s and video on demand strike up fierce competition but unfortunately the struggle for powers is really about Increasing Returns. The reason this would fit the definition of increasing returns is that when you simplify the meaning, it is when you have two new technologies entering the marketplace at the same time. Then one of those technologies becomes the leading technology. It takes the lead in a way that the other technology is driven away from the market (Laureate Education, 2014e). Mearian (2014) explains to us that, “DVD and Blu-ray revenues will fall because consumer demand is falling and competition from so-called “virtual formats” is increasing. Revenue from DVD and Blu-ray sales will decrease by 38% from $14.3 billion in 2014 to $8.9 billion in 2018, the report showed.” (Mearian 2014 p.1) This is true because when you ask people how they watch their movies, most people will mention Netflix, Hulu, CrunchyRoll or other online mediums in which they stream video service. Having a DVD that you must carry around is the old way of doing things. With all of the mobile devices that we own and the increased popularity of “Smart” televisions, there is no real need to have DVD’s anymore.

Now, DVD’s have not entirely fallen out of the market yet, but they are slowly fading away. If you look at the sale trends over the last few years in traditional retailers, there are always deals on the purchases of DVD’s. Unless a movie has just come out, they run many discounts and promotional options for this media format. Although, I do like the fact that when you have a DVD, you, in fact, own the movie and always have it, unlike many media formats it is not convenient. We live in a world where now the more efficient a service is; the more likely it is to become the new hottest trend. We all want to make our lives simpler and having instant access to your wants and needs is just where society mindset falls. Everyone is looking for instant gratification wherever they can find it. Although this is a problem in the world, this also is a reason why we the six fundamental principles of the evolutionary technology.

When looking at McLuhan’s tetrad and examining where DVD’s and video on demand, they will fall into different quadrants. The four quadrants our enhances, obsoletes, retrieves and reverses. DVD’s would belong to the quadrant of what Video on Demand would obsolete. Since having access to videos anywhere at any time, DVD’s are slowly being pushed out of the market. Whereas video on demand would then fit the category of what it enhances. For us, video on demand would enhance our need for instant gratification of users, provide a large variety of choices and allow users to simultaneously watch the same video in several different locations.





Arthur, W. B. (1996). Increasing returns and the new world of business. Harvard Business Review,74(4), 100−109. Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

Laureate Education (Producer). (2014e). David Thornburg: Increasing returns [Video file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.

Laureate Education (Producer). (2014j). David Thornburg: Six forces that drive emerging technologies [Video file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.

Mearian, L. (2014) Online movie streaming can be profitable as TV, disc sales. Computerworld. Retrieved from–disc-sales.html


Video  —  Posted: August 4, 2016 in Ph.D., Uncategorized
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Google Glass and the MIT Sixth Sense project are the newest forms of wearable technology. It is similar to wearing a computer. They are both considered to be disruptive technologies. For this blog post, I am going to concentrate on Google Glass. I love the idea of Google Glass. I was one of the people who applied to get a pair. This was a must have for geeks everywhere. As we have seen since its inception, it has caused a disruption occurred in the market. Bilton (2015) explained that “From its unveiling in 2012, it was considered the Gadget, yearned after by everyone from nerds and chief executives to chefs and fashionistas. It was the must-have toy that was going to set the gold standard for a new class of wearable computers.” (Bilton, 2015 p.1) It was the truth everyone, and anyone wanted a pair of Google Glass. They became such a disruptive force. A disruption occurs when, “new technology with the same functionality of existing technology, but it functions more efficiently, and then obsoletes that technology.” (Laureate Education, 2014a).

There are many social benefits from Google Glass, but society has not yet reached a point where they have realized it. Once they re-launch and become as popular as a smartphone, no one will worry about how they look when wearing them. This wearable technology will keep you connected to the world around you, as well as the virtual world. Google Glass replaces so many current technologies. With Google Glass, there is no need for tablets, mobile phones, computers and so many other devices that we use today. It can replace all of them. If I were able to make calls, send text messages and browse the web all from a pair of glasses that I wear, I would have no need for a phone or tablet anymore. There is another social issue that will come with Google Glass. Hurst ( 2013) said, “The most significant Google Glass experience is not the user experience – it’s the experience of everyone else” (Hurst 2013 p.1). This is very true. For anyone who will be using Google Glass, especially while it is first coming out will be met with backlash. I had seen videos of the early adopters who got their hands on Glass before it was shut down shunned. Now, I feel this will change again when society realizes that this is a need much like a smartphone, but it is also something that should be considered. People who are not wearing Glass may not be too happy having a conversation or being around anyone who is. This happens with new technologies, but it is something to think about when going over the social benefits.

I believe that Google Glass is still an emerging technology and is not quite ready to be replaced. We are just starting to see a wave of Virtual Reality headsets come onto the market, but there are not many other companies openly experimenting with Augmentative Reality devices. The only other one I can think of that is similar to Google Glass is the Microsoft HoloLens (which is only currently available to developers). One of the reasons I feel it is not ready to be replaced is due to the fact the project was shut down after early adopters were able to use Google Glass. It has such bad reviews because it was not ready to be released. Bilton said, “Several people with knowledge of Mr. Fadell’s plans for Glass said he was going to redesign the product from scratch and would not release it until it was complete.” (Bilton, 2015 p.1) I think once a new version of Google Glass is released and people are using it then replacing it is wide open. As Dr. Thornburg states, “New technologies are always susceptible to unanticipated “wild card” disruptive technologies.” (Laureate Education, 2014a). It is entirely accurate. Once this technology emerges, we have no idea what might be in store for the future. This product will also always have updates until it is completely replaced by the next disruptive technology. I don’t feel that Google Glass will be going anywhere quickly once it is rereleased but there will be many improvements made over the course of its life.




Bilton, N. (2015, February 4). Why Google Glass Broke – The New York Times. Retrieved from

Hurst, M. (2013) The Google Glass feature no one is talking about. Retrieved from

Laureate Education (Producer). (2014a). David Thornburg: Disruptive technologies [Video file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.



A Rhyme of History is another part of evolutionary technology. A rhyme of history is when a “new technology is a fresh emergence of the impact felt many years before from another technology” (Thornburg, 2014j). When looking at the different technologies throughout the years, there are many that would qualify as a Rhyme of History. When I think of a very relevant Rhyme of History, I think of e-mailing and text messaging as a means of communication. Both Text messaging and email can be considered a Rhyme of history.

Today, many people will just pick up their cell phones and send a message without thinking much about it. No one thinks, how am I able to do this and how has technology evolved so that this is possible. Text messaging is a newer trend. Long before we had mobile phones to text, many of us used different service providers on the World Wide Web to send an email. When you look back previous to e-mail, we would see our first rhyme of history. People would go to the post office to send letters through the United States Postal Services. This carries back throughout time where different systems were utilized for people to communicate with one another.

Our next Rhyme in History comes right here at home in the United States. When looking at the United States history with the postal system, we find that “the mail system began in the late 1600s when mail was carried by friends, merchants, and Native Americans. It was in 1673 when Governor Francis Lovelace created a monthly post between New York and Boston.” (Frederick, 2008 p.1) During 1683, we also had out the first post office in Pennsylvania opened by William Penn.

This relates back to closely to our next Rhyme in History. If we go back to 1653, we will find that De Valayer set up a postal system in Paris. He “set up mail boxes and delivered any letters placed in them if they used envelopes that only he sold.” (History of Mail, 2016 p.1) Thanks to an enemy of his putting live mice in his postal bins, this business venture did not work out. This did not stop mail from becoming a way that people would communicate.

If we go back in history even further, where our Rhyme in History comes from is very far back. We have a history of mail and communication needs all the way in 2400BC. In 2400 BC there were the first postal systems and couriers that were put into practice. It was the start of communication through people. This was seen in Egypt when “pharos employed curriers to deliver written documents throughout Egypt” (Wikipedia, 2007, p.1). The main uses of these couriers were for the diffusion of their decrees in their territory. This is amazing to think all of our history of communication comes from here.

When we go back throughout history, we can see all the times that mail and communication have been important to us. We can also watch how they evolve as new technologies become emergent. The reason we can say that texting and email are Rhymes in History is that it dates back all the way to 2400BC. Now, everyone can pick up a phone, send a text message or log onto a computer and seamlessly e-mail one another as a form of communication. By looking at our needs in the past, we will be able to predict the needs we will have in the future.



Laureate Education (Producer). (2014j). David Thornburg: Six forces that drive emerging technologies [Video file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.

History of Mail (2016). Retrieved July 3, 2016 from

Frederick, Ben (2008). The History of Communication Technology: Postal System. Retrieved July 4, 2016, from

Wikipedia (2007) Mail. Retrieved July 5, 2016, from:


We are currently witnessing a rise in the use and application of Virtual Reality. It is amazing that our technology can take and transport us into a whole new world. That is one of the wonders of Virtual Reality, the ability to put on a set of glasses and lose yourself in a beautiful world that you can help to create. In the article Forward 150 (2014) it states, “People will spend a large amount of time in virtual-reality worlds in which they will compete, socialize, relax, be entertained and do business by the year 2020” (Forward 150, 2014 p. 12). The use of Virtual Reality Headsets placing people into different worlds has already starting to take place in 2016. The Oculus Rift and HTC Vive have been released to the public if you have the funds to purchase them.

Looking at my tetrad of the Virtual Reality has helped me understand how technology becomes obsolete and emergent because you can see how it cycles and evolves. You can start to find trends and patterns in the advancement of technology. The tetrad explains the four parts of the Virtual Reality that are simultaneously happening.


The use of Virtual Reality would enhance the experience of watching movies and television. You will be able to see movies and television without being stuck in one spot to look at it. It can travel with you. Through the use of Google Cardboard, we have had a new experience using our phones. You can put your phone into a headset and start utilizing it like never before. Compatible apps and games are fun to use while having a headset on. It also enhances how we teach STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) to our students. Learning Litoff Staff said, “VR can help students, even students much younger than college-aged, see the practical side of STEM. It might even plant seeds of curiosity that could one day lead to higher education and even a career in a STEM field.” (Learning Litoff, 2016 p.1) I agree that this is true. I have utilized it within my classroom, and it provides great exposure to what technology can come in the future and what we can do with the technology we already have. It also has a practical use in the video game industry. Sony is releasing the PlayStation VR in October 2016 with a long line of popular games that are being developed for their new system. It will be their first Virtual Reality Console that will enhance gaming experiences.


There are a few things that the use of Virtual Reality will make obsolete. While using the Virtual Reality headsets, we will no longer need monitors and flat panel televisions; everything will be right in front of your eyes. Orland (2016) tells us in an interview with Palmer Luckey, he stated,

“I think there’s almost no way traditional displays will be around in a couple of decades,” Luckey told the site. “Why in the world would you buy a 60-inch TV that, even if it were dirt cheap for that, it’s still going to cost a lot to ship it and make it from raw materials? A VR headset is going to be much better and much cheaper, and you can take it anywhere” (Orland 2016 p.1)

This is coming from the creator of the Oculus Rift. I agree that these technologies will fade away. You will not see the communal viewing of television anymore. Everyone will be watching his or her headset. It is also going to cause cheap computers that you can buy at local stores to become obsolete as well. You need a very special computer to run VR software, and they are not cheap. Best Buy has a bundle starting at $1800 and goes up to $3,200. Those are not even the top of the line computers that can pair with them. It is going to obsolete video game consoles as well, pushing them to all move towards having Virtual Reality as a part of their systems. I also feel it will obsolete certain parts of smart phones. You won’t need a phone when you have a headset that can do everything that the phone can do and more. By moving towards using virtual reality, there will not be a need for all of these technologies any more. The more advanced the technology becomes, the less we will need any of these features. One headset can replace a whole world of items.

Retrieves or Revives:

What it revived for me is the 3D movies and television viewing. I remember when I was young, you got this little pair of plastic glasses, and you would go to the movie theater and put them on. They had red and blue lenses and all of a sudden when the movie came on; it looked like it was right in front of you. When I used a Virtual Reality headset for the first time, this is what it brought me back too. I found it surprising how similar it felt watching a video through the headset and thinking back to watching my first 3D movie in a movie theater. It rekindled that feeling of nostalgia.


Although what the future holds is somewhat unknown, many companies are already working on a technology that will replace Virtual Reality. It will be the use of Augmentative Reality. Through Augmentative Reality, people will not have to separate themselves from the real world. An Augmentative Reality headset such as Google Glass and Microsoft Holo Lens will allow you to interact with the world around you. Where Virtual Reality you are in a whole new beautiful world, Augmentative reality will be interacting with your world in a different way. Also, with Virtual Reality you are stuck in one place, there will be a cord attached to your headset and a sensor in front of you, with Augmentative Reality you will be wire free. There will be a mini computer in the glasses you wear, and you will be good to go out into the world and explore. Once companies release AR products to non-developers, I think these devices will immediately start replacing virtual reality headsets.



Elon University/Pew Internet Project. (n.d.). Imagining the Internet: A history and forecast: Forward 150 timeline [Futuristic timeline]. Retrieved June 16, 2014, from
Orland, Kyle (Apr 15, 2014). Will VR make flat panels obsolete? Oculus’ founder gives it 20 years. Retrieved June 20, 2016, from
Learning Litoff Staff (February 8, 2016). How Virtual Reality Can Enhance STEM Education. Retrieved June 21, 2016, from




From floppy discs to online storage

As time moved forwards and technology advanced we now have a more efficient way to save our most important files. Whether it is family photos, legal documents or papers for school you can use various online storage websites and applications. This is a need that the average person has. They need to have an easy way to store their information and necessary files. Online storage such as Dropbox and Google Drive has made such a difference in my work. It has become an essential technology that has supported learning, increased productivity as well as saved time during collaborations. I am a technology liaison. We have monthly meetings, but something that I presented on was an item called LittleBits. Now the benefit of online storage is that it allows me to share my lessons, photographs, experiments, cue cards, instructional materials, and more through Google drive. Now, all of the technology liaisons and teachers in my network were able to log on and use my information to help teach their classes. I have had a lot of people pull my work and modify it for their students. Without the use of a shared Google Drive folder, it would make the process so much more difficult. I don’t have the time in the day to look at e-mails from teachers and fulfill their request. I would have to e-mail all of my lessons as an attachment over multiple e-mails because our e-mails storage for attachments is limited. I am also able to have my files automatically save off of my computer to my Google drive and then later choose what files to share. With my Dropbox, I keep that as a backup to everything. I love how simple Dropbox is to use. Again, like Google Drive, I can share a folder and collaboratively work on projects. I use both online storage systems interchangeably. They both also have apps so that I can save stuff on my smartphones and tablets as well. This is one of the greatest features of online storage is that I can save from multiple devices. Since I have seven different devices that I use I can work and switch seamlessly and still retain all of my information.

The pitfalls of this technology are that there is a problem with security. Which comes with the ability of others gaining access to your information. Unfortunately, many accounts do get hacked, and your information can get accessed. It does not happen on a regular basis, but it is an issue. Mr. Greene (2011) stated, “Files entrusted to cloud-storage provider Dropbox were susceptible to unauthorized access via three attacks devised by security researchers, but the provider has since closed the vulnerabilities” (Greene, 2011 p.1). If you have documents that are very secure, online storage is not a full proof way to keep your documents. I had an issue with my email and Dropbox account being hacked and attempting to erase a folder of my information, evidence in a legal case.

I feel to make online storage technology even better would be to increase the amount of storage available for users. There is now a limited amount of storage space. You can get a vast amount of storage, but then you must pay a subscription fee. Ms. Biafore explains,

If you decide to store all your data in Dropbox, including music, photos, and videos, you’ll probably need more space. You can upgrade to a 100GB, 200GB or 500GB plan. 100GB of storage costs $99 per year; 200GB costs $199 per year and 500GB is $499 per year (Biafore, 2012 p.8)

This is something that online storage needs to improve. It should not be this expensive. There should be options that everyone can afford. Another improvement would be the ability to save information while not connected to the Internet. I am not always connected to the Internet while traveling. Even with my mobile hotspots there are times that it does not work. I always like to back up my work and having a feature for offline uploading would be useful.

This technology is featured in the following articles:


#Floppydiscs #onlinestorage #dropbox #googledrive #emergingtechnology #tech #save #work #technology #cloud #thornburg #Biafore #Greene

Biafore, B. (2012, 10). Dropbox collaboration. Better Investing, 62, 8-9. Retrieved from
Greene, T. (2011). Dropbox cloud was a haven for data thieves, researchers say. Network World (Online), Retrieved from

Minecraft & Education

Posted: June 1, 2016 in Uncategorized

I have found that there are many children that love to play video games. One of the most popular games happens to be Minecraft. I found an article online that I wanted to share with everything. It explains how you can use Minecraft in the classroom to teach math. I will include the article link below. I hope you enjoy it!


Educators also check out Minecraftedu. It is a great way to bring Minecraft to the classroom. It is a low-cost alternative for educators.


#minecraft #educators #teaching #learning



Posted: June 1, 2016 in Uncategorized

I apologize that I have been on hiatus. A lot of stuff has been happening in my life that has made it a little difficult to update. I am hoping to start blogging and updating a bit more regularly. If I get the time I will start posting free apps of the day again for my tech friends… So, how is everyone doing?